104 MY COUNTRY AND MY PEOPLE An educated man should, above all, be a reasonable being, who is always characterized by his common sense, his love of moder- ation and restraint, and his hatred of abstract theories and logical extremes. Common sense is possessed by all common people. The academic scholar is in constant danger of losing this common sense. He is apt to indulge in excesses of theory; the reasonable man, or the Chinese man of culture, should avoid all excesses of theory and conduct. You have, for instance, the historian Froude saying that the divorce of Henry VIII from Catherine of Aragon was for purely political reasons, and you have Bishop Creighton claiming, on the other hand, that it was entirely dictated by animal lust,1 whereas the common-sense attitude should be that both considerations were effective., which is probably nearer the truth. In the West one scientist is infatuated by the idea of heredity and another is obsessed by the notion of environment, and each one goes about doggedly to prove his theory with great learning and stupidity, whereas the Oriental, without much cerebration, would allow something for both. A typically Chinese judgment is: "-4 is right, and B is not wrong either." Such self-sufficiency is sometimes infuriating to a logical mind, but what of it? The reasonable mind keeps a balance when the logical mind has lost it. The idea that a Chinese painter could, like Picasso, take the perfectly logical remark that the world of objects could be reduced to cones, planes and angular lines and then proceed logically to carry that theory into painting is obviously impossible in China. We have a natural distrust of arguments that are too perfect and theories that are too logical. Against such logical freaks of theories, common sense is the best and most effective antidote. Bertrand Russell has acutely pointed out that "In art, they [the Chinese] aim at being exquisite, and in life at being reasonable." . The result of this worship of common sense is therefore a dislike of all extravagances of theory in thought and all excesses of conduct in morals. The natural consequence of this is the Doctrine of the Golden Mean, which is really the same as the "nothing too much" ideal of the Greeks. The Chinese word for * See the extremely illuminating little book, The Magic of Common Sense, by George Frederick Wates (John Murray, London).